• MySQL 5.1 Reference Manual :: 17 MySQL Cluster NDB 6.X/7.X :: 17.4 MySQL Cluster Programs :: 17.4.17 ndb_restore — Restore a MySQL Cluster Backup
  • 17.4.17. ndb_restore — Restore a MySQL Cluster Backup

    The cluster restoration program is implemented as a separate command-line utility ndb_restore, which can normally be found in the MySQL bin directory. This program reads the files created as a result of the backup and inserts the stored information into the database.

    ndb_restore must be executed once for each of the backup files that were created by the START BACKUP command used to create the backup (see Section 17.5.3.2, “Using The MySQL Cluster Management Client to Create a Backup”). This is equal to the number of data nodes in the cluster at the time that the backup was created.

    Note

    Before using ndb_restore, it is recommended that the cluster be running in single user mode, unless you are restoring multiple data nodes in parallel. See Section 17.5.6, “MySQL Cluster Single User Mode”, for more information about single user mode.

    The following table includes options that are specific to the MySQL Cluster native backup restoration program ndb_restore. Additional descriptions follow the table. For options common to all MySQL Cluster programs, see Section 17.4.23, “Options Common to MySQL Cluster Programs”.

    Table 17.14. ndb_restore Command Line Options

    Format Description Introduction Deprecated Removed
    --append Append data to a tab-delimited file 5.1.18    
    --backup_path=path Path to backup files directory 5.1.17    
    --backupid=# Restore from the backup with the given ID      
    --connect Same as connectstring      
    --restore_data Restore table data and logs into NDB Cluster using the NDB API      
    --disable-indexes Causes indexes from a backup to be ignored; may decrease time needed to restore data. 5.1.41-ndb-7.1.2    
    --dont_ignore_systab_0 Do not ignore system table during restore. Experimental only; not for production use      
    --exclude-databases=db-list List of one or more databases to exclude (includes those not named) 5.1.32-ndb-6.4.3    
    --exclude-missing-columns Causes columns from the backup version of a table that are missing from the version of the table in the database to be ignored. 5.1.35-ndb-7.0.7    
    --exclude-tables=table-list List of one or more tables to exclude (includes those in same database that are not not named); each table reference must include the database name 5.1.32-ndb-6.4.3    
    --fields-enclosed-by=char Fields are enclosed with the indicated character 5.1.18    
    --fields-optionally-enclosed-by Fields are optionally enclosed with the indicated character 5.1.18    
    --fields-terminated-by=char Fields are terminated by the indicated character 5.1.18    
    --hex Print binary types in hexadecimal format 5.1.18    
    --include-databases=db-list List of one or more databases to restore (excludes those not named) 5.1.32-ndb-6.4.3    
    --include-tables=table-list List of one or more tables to restore (excludes those in same database that are not named); each table reference must include the database name 5.1.32-ndb-6.4.3    
    --lines-terminated-by=char Lines are terminated by the indicated character 5.1.18    
    --restore_meta Restore metadata to NDB Cluster using the NDB API      
    --ndb-nodegroup-map=map Nodegroup map for NDBCLUSTER storage engine. Syntax: list of (source_nodegroup, destination_nodegroup)      
    --no-binlog If a mysqld is connected and using binary logging, do not log the restored data 5.1.24-ndb-6.3.16    
    --no-restore-disk-objects Do not restore Disk Data objects such as tablespaces and log file groups      
    --no-upgrade Do not upgrade array type for varsize attributes which do not already resize VAR data, and do not change column attributes 5.1.19    
    --nodeid=# Back up files from node with this ID      
    --parallelism=# Number of parallel transactions during restoration of data      
    --preserve-trailing-spaces Allow preservation of tailing spaces (including padding) when CHAR is promoted to VARCHAR or BINARY is promoted to VARBINARY 5.1.23-ndb-6.3.8    
    --print Print metadata, data and log to stdout (equivalent to --print_meta --print_data --print_log)      
    --print_data Print data to stdout      
    --print_log Print to stdout      
    --print_metadata Print metadata to stdout      
    --progress-frequency=# Print status of restoration each given number of seconds      
    --promote-attributes Allow attributes to be promoted when restoring data from backup 5.1.23-ndb-6.3.8    
    --rebuild-indexes Causes multi-threaded ordered index rebuilding of indexes found in the backup. 5.1.41-ndb-7.1.2    
    --restore_epoch Restore epoch info into the status table. Convenient on a MySQL Cluster replication slave for starting replication. The row in mysql.ndb_apply_status with id 0 will be updated/inserted.      
    --skip-table-check Skip table structure check during restoring of data 5.1.17    
    --skip-unknown-objects Causes schema objects not recognised by ndb_restore to be ignored when restoring a backup made from a newer MySQL Cluster version to an older version. 5.1.41-ndb-7.1.4    
    --tab=path Creates a tab-separated .txt file for each table in the given path 5.1.18    
    --verbose=# Control level of verbosity in output      

    Typical options for this utility are shown here:

    ndb_restore [-c connectstring] -n node_id [-m] -b backup_id \
        -r --backup_path=/path/to/backup/files
    

    The -c option is used to specify a connectstring which tells ndb_restore where to locate the cluster management server. (See Section 17.3.2.3, “The MySQL Cluster Connectstring”, for information on connectstrings.) If this option is not used, then ndb_restore attempts to connect to a management server on localhost:1186. This utility acts as a cluster API node, and so requires a free connection “slot” to connect to the cluster management server. This means that there must be at least one [api] or [mysqld] section that can be used by it in the cluster config.ini file. It is a good idea to keep at least one empty [api] or [mysqld] section in config.ini that is not being used for a MySQL server or other application for this reason (see Section 17.3.2.7, “Defining SQL and Other API Nodes in a MySQL Cluster”).

    You can verify that ndb_restore is connected to the cluster by using the SHOW command in the ndb_mgm management client. You can also accomplish this from a system shell, as shown here:

    shell> ndb_mgm -e "SHOW"
    

    -n is used to specify the node ID of the data node on which the backups were taken.

    The first time you run the ndb_restore restoration program, you also need to restore the metadata. In other words, you must re-create the database tables—this can be done by running it with the -m option. Note that the cluster should have an empty database when starting to restore a backup. (In other words, you should start ndbd with --initial prior to performing the restore. You should also remove manually any Disk Data files present in the data node's DataDir.)

    It is possible to restore data without restoring table metadata. Prior to MySQL 5.1.17, ndb_restore did not perform any checks of table schemas; if a table was altered between the time the backup was taken and when ndb_restore was run, ndb_restore would still attempt to restore the data to the altered table.

    Beginning with MySQL 5.1.17, the default behavior is for ndb_restore to fail with an error if table data do not match the table schema; this can be overridden using the --skip-table-check or -s option. Prior to MySQL 5.1.21, if this option is used, then ndb_restore attempts to fit data into the existing table schema, but the result of restoring a backup to a table schema that does not match the original is unspecified.

    Beginning with MySQL Cluster NDB 6.3.8, ndb_restore supports limited attribute promotion in much the same way that it is supported by MySQL replication; that is, data backed up from a column of a given type can generally be restored to a column using a “larger, similar” type. For example, data from a CHAR(20) column can be restored to a column declared as VARCHAR(20), VARCHAR(30), or CHAR(30); data from a MEDIUMINT column can be restored to a column of type INT or BIGINT. See Section 16.4.1.6.2, “Replication of Columns Having Different Data Types”, for a table of type conversions currently supported by attribute promotion.

    Attribute promotion by ndb_restore must be enabled explicitly, as follows:

    1. Prepare the table to which the backup is to be restored. ndb_restore cannot be used to re-create the table with a different definition from the original; this means that you must either create the table manually, or alter the columns which you wish to promote using ALTER TABLE after restoring the table metadata but before restoring the data.

    2. Invoke ndb_restore with the --promote-attributes option (short form -A) when restoring the table data. Attribute promotion does not occur if this option is not used; instead, the restore operation fails with an error.

    In addition to --promote-attributes, a --preserve-trailing-spaces option is also available for use with ndb_restore beginning with MySQL Cluster NDB 6.3.8. This option (short form -R) causes trailing spaces to be preserved when promoting a CHAR column to VARCHAR or a BINARY column to VARBINARY. Otherwise, any trailing spaces are dropped from column values when they are inserted into the new columns.

    Note

    Although you can promote CHAR columns to VARCHAR and BINARY columns to VARBINARY, you cannot promote VARCHAR columns to CHAR or VARBINARY columns to BINARY.

    The -b option is used to specify the ID or sequence number of the backup, and is the same number shown by the management client in the Backup backup_id completed message displayed upon completion of a backup. (See Section 17.5.3.2, “Using The MySQL Cluster Management Client to Create a Backup”.)

    Important

    When restoring cluster backups, you must be sure to restore all data nodes from backups having the same backup ID. Using files from different backups will at best result in restoring the cluster to an inconsistent state, and may fail altogether.

    --restore_epoch (short form: -e) adds (or restores) epoch information to the cluster replication status table. This is useful for starting replication on a MySQL Cluster replication slave. When this option is used, the row in the mysql.ndb_apply_status having 0 in the id column is updated if it already exists; such a row is inserted if it does not already exist. (See Section 17.6.9, “MySQL Cluster Backups With MySQL Cluster Replication”.)

    The path to the backup directory is required; this is supplied to ndb_restore using the --backup_path option, and must include the subdirectory corresponding to the ID backup of the backup to be restored. For example, if the data node's DataDir is /var/lib/mysql-cluster, then the backup directory is /var/lib/mysql-cluster/BACKUP, and the backup files for the backup with the ID 3 can be found in /var/lib/mysql-cluster/BACKUP/BACKUP-3. The path may be absolute or relative to the directory in which the ndb_restore executable is located, and may be optionally prefixed with backup_path=.

    Note

    Previous to MySQL 5.1.17 and MySQL Cluster NDB 6.1.5, the path to the backup directory was specified as shown here, with backup_path= being optional:

    [backup_path=]/path/to/backup/files
    

    Beginning with MySQL 5.1.17 and MySQL Cluster NDB 6.1.5, this syntax changed to --backup_path=/path/to/backup/files, to conform more closely with options used by other MySQL programs; --backup_id is required, and there is no short form for this option.

    It is possible to restore a backup to a database with a different configuration than it was created from. For example, suppose that a backup with backup ID 12, created in a cluster with two database nodes having the node IDs 2 and 3, is to be restored to a cluster with four nodes. Then ndb_restore must be run twice—once for each database node in the cluster where the backup was taken. However, ndb_restore cannot always restore backups made from a cluster running one version of MySQL to a cluster running a different MySQL version. See Section 17.2.6.2, “MySQL Cluster 5.1 and MySQL Cluster NDB 6.x/7.x Upgrade and Downgrade Compatibility”, for more information.

    Important

    It is not possible to restore a backup made from a newer version of MySQL Cluster using an older version of ndb_restore. You can restore a backup made from a newer version of MySQL to an older cluster, but you must use a copy of ndb_restore from the newer MySQL Cluster version to do so.

    For example, to restore a cluster backup taken from a cluster running MySQL Cluster NDB 6.2.15 to a cluster running MySQL 5.1.20, you must use a copy of ndb_restore from the MySQL Cluster NDB 6.2.15 distribution.

    For more rapid restoration, the data may be restored in parallel, provided that there is a sufficient number of cluster connections available. That is, when restoring to multiple nodes in parallel, you must have an [api] or [mysqld] section in the cluster config.ini file available for each concurrent ndb_restore process. However, the data files must always be applied before the logs.

    Formerly, when using ndb_restore to restore a backup made from a MySQL 5.0 cluster to a 5.1 cluster, VARCHAR columns were not resized and were recreated using the 5.0 fixed format. Beginning with MySQL 5.1.19, ndb_restore recreates such VARCHAR columns using MySQL Cluster 5.1's variable-width format. Also beginning with MySQL 5.1.19, this behavior can be overridden using the --no-upgrade option (short form: -u) when running ndb_restore.

    This option causes ndb_restore to print its output to stdout. Beginning with MySQL 5.1.18, several additional options are available for use with the --print_data option in generating data dumps, either to stdout, or to a file. These are similar to some of the options used with mysqldump, and are shown in the following list:

    • --tab, -T

      Version Introduced 5.1.18
      Command-Line Format --tab=path

      This option causes --print_data to create dump files, one per table, each named tbl_name.txt. It requires as its argument the path to the directory where the files should be saved; use . for the current directory.

    • --fields-enclosed-by=string

      Version Introduced 5.1.18
      Command-Line Format --fields-enclosed-by=char
        Permitted Values
      Type string
      Default

      Each column values are enclosed by the string passed to this option (regardless of data type; see next item).

    • --fields-optionally-enclosed-by=string

      Version Introduced 5.1.18
      Command-Line Format --fields-optionally-enclosed-by
        Permitted Values
      Type string
      Default

      The string passed to this option is used to enclose column values containing character data (such as CHAR, VARCHAR, BINARY, TEXT, or ENUM).

    • --fields-terminated-by=string

      Version Introduced 5.1.18
      Command-Line Format --fields-terminated-by=char
        Permitted Values
      Type string
      Default \t (tab)

      The string passed to this option is used to separate column values. The default value is a tab character (\t).

    • --hex

      Version Introduced 5.1.18
      Command-Line Format --hex

      If this option is used, all binary values are output in hexadecimal format.

    • --fields-terminated-by=string

      Version Introduced 5.1.18
      Command-Line Format --fields-terminated-by=char
        Permitted Values
      Type string
      Default \t (tab)

      This option specifies the string used to end each line of output. The default is a linefeed character (\n).

    • --append

      Version Introduced 5.1.18
      Command-Line Format --append

      When used with the --tab and --print_data options, this causes the data to be appended to any existing files having the same names.

    Note

    If a table has no explicit primary key, then the output generated when using the --print_data option includes the table's hidden primary key.

    Beginning with MySQL 5.1.18, it is possible to restore selected databases, or to restore selected tables from a given database using the syntax shown here:

    ndb_restore other_options db_name,[db_name[,...] | tbl_name[,tbl_name][,...]]
    

    In other words, you can specify either of the following to be restored:

    • All tables from one or more databases

    • One or more tables from a single database

    --include-databases=db_name[,db_name][,...]

    Version Introduced 5.1.32-ndb-6.4.3
    Command-Line Format --include-databases=db-list
      Permitted Values
    Type string
    Default

    --include-tables=db_name.tbl_name[,db_name.tbl_name][,...]

    Version Introduced 5.1.32-ndb-6.4.3
    Command-Line Format --include-tables=table-list
      Permitted Values
    Type string
    Default

    Beginning with MySQL Cluster NDB 6.3.22 and MySQL Cluster NDB 6.4.3, you can (and should) use instead the --include-databases option or the --include-tables option for restoring only specific databases or tables, respectively. --include-databases takes a comma-delimited list of databases to be restored. --include-tables takes a comma-delimited list of tables (in database.table format) to be restored.

    When --include-databases or --include-tables is used, only those databases or tables named by the option are restored; all other databases and tables are excluded by ndb_restore, and are not restored.

    The following table shows several invocations of ndb_restore using --include-* options (other options possibly required have been omitted for clarity), and the effects these have on restoring from a MySQL Cluster backup:

    Option Used Result
    --include-databases=db1 Only tables in database db1 are restored; all tables in all other databases are ignored
    --include-databases=db1,db2 (or --include-databases=db1 --include-databases=db2) Only tables in databases db1 and db2 are restored; all tables in all other databases are ignored
    --include-tables=db1.t1 Only table t1 in database db1 is restored; no other tables in db1 or in any other database are restored
    --include-tables=db1.t2,db2.t1 (or --include-tables=db1.t2 --include-tables=db2.t1) Only the table t2 in database db1 and the table t1 in database db2 are restored; no other tables in db1, db2, or any other database are restored

    Beginning with MySQL Cluster NDB 6.3.29 and MySQL Cluster NDB 7.0.10, you can use these two options together. For example, the following causes all tables in databases db1 and db2, together with the tables t1 and t2 in database db3, to be restored (and no other databases or tables):

    shell> ndb_restore [...] --include-databases=db1,db2 --include-tables=db3.t1,db3.t2
    

    (Again we have omitted other, possibly required, options in the example just shown.)

    Note

    Prior to MySQL Cluster NDB 6.3.29 and MySQL Cluster NDB 7.0.10, multiple --include-* options were not handled correctly, and the result of the options shown in the previous example was that only the tables db3.t1 and db3.t2 were actually restored. (Bug#48907)

    --exclude-databases=db_name[,db_name][,...]

    Version Introduced 5.1.32-ndb-6.4.3
    Command-Line Format --exclude-databases=db-list
      Permitted Values
    Type string
    Default

    --exclude-tables=db_name.tbl_name[,db_name.tbl_name][,...]

    Version Introduced 5.1.32-ndb-6.4.3
    Command-Line Format --exclude-tables=table-list
      Permitted Values
    Type string
    Default

    Also beginning with MySQL Cluster NDB 6.3.22 and MySQL Cluster NDB 6.4.3, it is possible to exclude from being restored one or more databases or tables using the ndb_restore options --exclude-databases and --exclude-tables. --exclude-databases takes a comma-delimited list of one or more databases which should not be restored. --exclude-tables takes a comma-delimited list of one or more tables (using database.table format) which should not be restored.

    When --exclude-databases or --exclude-tables is used, only those databases or tables named by the option are excluded; all other databases and tables are restored by ndb_restore.

    This table shows several invocations of ndb_restore usng --exclude-* options (other options possibly required have been omitted for clarity), and the effects these options have on restoring from a MySQL Cluster backup:

    Option Used Result
    --exclude-databases=db1 All tables in all databases except db1 are restored; no tables in db1 are restored
    --exclude-databases=db1,db2 (or --exclude-databases=db1 --exclude-databases=db2) All tables in all databases except db1 and db2 are restored; no tables in db1 or db2 are restored
    --exclude-tables=db1.t1 All tables except t1 in database db1 are restored; all other tables in db1 are restored; all tables in all other databases are restored
    --exclude-tables=db1.t2,db2.t1 (or --exclude-tables=db1.t2 --exclude-tables=db2.t1) All tables in database db1 except for t2 and all tables in database db2 except for table t1 are restored; no other tables in db1 or db2 are restored; all tables in all other databases are restored

    Beginning with MySQL Cluster NDB 6.3.29 and MySQL Cluster NDB 7.0.10, you can use these two options together. For example, the following causes all tables in all databases except for databases db1 and db2, along with the tables t1 and t2 in database db3, not to be restored:

    shell> ndb_restore [...] --exclude-databases=db1,db2 --exclude-tables=db3.t1,db3.t2
    

    (Again, we have omitted other possibly necessary options in the interest of clarity and brevity from the example just shown.)

    Note

    Prior to MySQL Cluster NDB 6.3.29 and MySQL Cluster NDB 7.0.10, multiple --exclude-* options were not handled correctly, with the result that the options shown in the previous example caused ndb_restore to exclude only the tables db3.t1 and db3.t2. (Bug#48907)

    Beginning with MySQL Cluster NDB 6.3.29 and MySQL Cluster NDB 7.0.10, you can use --include-* and --exclude-* options together, subject to the following rules:

    • The actions of all --include-* and --exclude-* options are cumulative.

    • All --include-* and --exclude-* options are evaluated in the order passed to ndb_restore, from right to left.

    • In the event of conflicting options, the first (rightmost) option takes precedence. In other words, the first option (going from right to left) that matches against a given database or table “wins”.

    For example, the following set of options causes ndb_restore to restore all tables from database db1 except db1.t1, while restoring no other tables from any other databases:

              
    --include-databases=db1 --exclude-tables=db1.t1
    

    However, reversing the order of the options just given simply causes all tables from database db1 to be restored (including db1.t1, but no tables from any other database), because the --include-dabases option, being farthest to the right, is the first match against database db1 and thus takes precedence over any other option that matches db1 or any tables in db1:

              
    --exclude-tables=db1.t1 --include-databases=db1
    

    Note

    Prior to MySQL Cluster NDB 6.3.29 and MySQL Cluster NDB 7.0.10, it was not possible to use --include-databases or --include-tables together with --exclude-databases or --exclude-tables, as these combinations were evaluated inconsistently. (Bug#48907)

    --exclude-missing-columns

    Version Introduced 5.1.35-ndb-7.0.7
    Command-Line Format --exclude-missing-columns

    Beginning with MySQL Cluster NDB 6.3.26 and MySQL Cluster NDB 7.0.7, it is also possible to restore only selected table columns using the --exclude-missing-columns option. When this option is used, ndb_restore ignores any columns missing from tables being restored as compared to the versions of those tables found in the backup. This option applies to all tables being restored. If you wish to apply this option only to selected tables or databases, you can use it in combination with one or more of the options described in the previous paragraph to do so, then restore data to the remaining tables using a complementary set of these options.

    --disable-indexes

    Version Introduced 5.1.41-ndb-7.1.2
    Command-Line Format --disable-indexes

    Beginning with MySQL Cluster NDB 6.3.31, MySQL Cluster NDB 7.0.11, and MySQL CLuster NDB 7.1.2, you can use this option with ndb_restore to disable the indexes found in a backup for faster restoration of the data.

    --rebuild-indexes

    Version Introduced 5.1.41-ndb-7.1.2
    Command-Line Format --rebuild-indexes

    Beginning with MySQL Cluster NDB 6.3.31, MySQL Cluster NDB 7.0.11, and MySQL CLuster NDB 7.1.2, you can use this option with ndb_restore to cause multi-threaded rebuilding of the ordered indexes found in a backup during the restoration process.

    --skip-unknown-objects

    Version Introduced 5.1.41-ndb-7.1.4
    Command-Line Format --skip-unknown-objects

    This option causes ndb_restore to ignore any schema objects it does not recgnize while reading a native NDB backup. This can be used for restoring a backup made from a cluster running MySQL Cluster NDB 7.0 to a cluster running MySQL Cluster NDB 6.3.

    This option was added in MySQL Cluster NDB 6.3.34, MySQL Cluster NDB 7.0.15, and MySQL CLuster NDB 7.1.4.

    Error reporting.  ndb_restore reports both temporary and permanent errors. In the case of temporary errors, it may able to recover from them. Beginning with MySQL 5.1.12, it reports Restore successful, but encountered temporary error, please look at configuration in such cases.

    Important

    After using ndb_restore to initialize a MySQL Cluster for use in circular replication, binary logs on the SQL node acting as the replication slave are not automatically created, and you must cause them to be created manually. In order to cause the binary logs to be created, issue a SHOW TABLES statement on that SQL node before running START SLAVE.

    This is a known issue with MySQL Cluster management, which we intend to address in a future release.